Kuwait’s Distinctive Strategic Location between the Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula made it a Meeting Point for Various Ancient Civilizations and an Important Hub for their Settlement.
Civilization sequence on the land of Kuwait can be identified through the continuous archaeological discoveries since 1957 until now, as Kuwait embraced various civilizations ever since the Stone Age through the Bronze Age, and extended to the Hellenistic era, followed by pre-Islamic period up to the Islamic era until the emergence of Modern Kuwait.
In the middle of the 17 th Century, the Arabian Peninsula suffered a wave of severe drought and famine. This led a group of families, the most prominent of which were Al Sabah, Al Khalifah and Al Jalahma, to leave Al-Haddar area in Nejd seeking a new homeland that would provide them with a better life. This group was called "Al Utub", an expression derived from the word "ataba" meaning those who migrated from one place to another. The families migrated from Al-Haddar area of Nejd in the center of the Arabian Peninsula along the Ahsa'a road, and settled in Al-Zubara in Qatar, where they stayed for a period of no less than 50 years acquiring the maritime skills. Later, in 1701, Al- Utub left this town aboard a fleet of 150 ships heading to Al-Mikhraq in the north of the Arabian Gulf on the outskirts of Basrah. Later, they sailed to Al-Subbiya which located on the northern coast of Kuwait’s Bay. Soon after, realizing the importance of this area, Al-Utub settled down in Al Qurain, which was originally a commercial port and a fishing site. Al Qurain was developed and grew to become known as "Kuwait"; a diminutive of “Al-Kut” which means a castle or fort. After Al-Utub settled in Al Qurain for a period, they began forming a tripartite alliance among the three prominent families in 1716: Al Sabah family headed by Sulaiman bin Ahmad who took over the affairs of the government; Al Jalahma family headed by Jaber Al Ataby who was responsible for maritime affairs; and Al Khalifah family headed by Khalifah bin Mohammad who were entrusted with commercial affairs. In 1718, after Sheikh Sulaiman bin Ahmad passed away, the people of Kuwait chose his grandson, Sheikh Sabah bin Jaber bin Sulaiman bin Ahmad of Al Shamlan, descendent of Jumailah, a branch of Eneza Tribe, descendant of Asad, a tribe of the Adnani Arabs of Rabi'ah, to be their first ruler. It is noteworthy that his father, Sheikh Jaber passed away in Al-Zubara.