The Arab Economic Summit,
19-20 January 2009,
State of Kuwait

Arab Republic of Egypt


Head of State Muhammad Husni Mubarak - President of Egypt


Geography Egypt is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Western Asia. Covering an area of about 1,010,000 square km . Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. The capital is Cairo.

Climate Egypt does not receive much rainfall except in the winter months. South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm per year .

On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as 410 mm , with most of the rainfall between October and March.

Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta,

Temperatures average between 80 °F (27 °C) and 90 °F (32 °C) in summer, and up to 109 °F (43 °C) on the Red Sea coast.

Temperatures average between 55 °F (13 °C) and 70 °F (21 °C) in winter.

A steady wind from the northwest helps hold down the temperature near the Mediterranean coast

Every year, a predictable flooding of the Nile replenishes Egypt's soil. This gives the country consistent harvest throughout the year.

Many know this event as The Gift of the Nile.

Currency The Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 qirsh , or 1000 milliemes.

Economy Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place.

Warm weather and plentiful water permit several crops a year.

Land is worked intensively and yields are high. Cotton, rice, wheat, corn, sugarcane, sugar beets, onions, and beans are the principal crops.

Increasingly, a few modern techniques are applied to producing fruits, vegetables and flowers, in addition to cotton, for export.

Egypt’s mineral and energy resources include petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, gold and iron ore.

Crude oil is found primarily in the Gulf of Suez and in the Western Desert.

Natural gas is found mainly in the Nile Delta, off the Mediterranean Sea shore, and in the Western Desert.

Egypt is perhaps best known as the home of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with its temples, hieroglyphs, mummies, and - visible above all - its pyramids.

Less well-known is Egypt's medieval heritage, courtesy of Coptic Christianity and Islam - ancient churches, monasteries and mosques punctuate the Egyptian landscape.

Egypt stimulates the imagination of western tourists like few other countries and is probably one of the most popular tourist destinations world-wide.
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